Production of fungal fruiting bodies seems to have benefitted from the ‘long hot summer’ of June-July 2018 followed by the September rains. This was certainly our impression on the foray led by Bruce Ing on 16thSeptember along the Loop Path at Little Assynt (NC1525). The weather forecast was not optimistic, but four members of the Field Club and two pairs of visitors (from Berkshire and Clachtoll) joined Bruce and wife Ellie at the Little Assynt Tree Nursery Carpark (153251) at 11a.m. After a damp and breezy start, the weather steadily improved; we had lunch on boulders in the sun off the path and turned back at 3p.m. just beyond a small pine plantation (158259).
Bruce took a selection of specimens home for examination under the microscope and his eventual tally for the day was 60 species. This is a good haul for a Little Assynt walk of some 800m through heathland, native woodland of downy birch, rowan, eared and grey willow, and a small stand of Scots pine. A list of those he identified is appended and a summary follows.
Mushrooms and their relatives (Agaricales) included the archetypical toadstool fly agaric Amanita muscaria, seven members of the difficult genus of webcaps Cortinarius spp., the very toxic livid pinkgill Entoloma sinuatum, four species of poisonpies Hebeloma spp., the colourful if common blackening waxcap Hygrocybe conica, the rare red-capped weeping widow Lachrymaria pyrotricha and the stump puffball Lycoperdon pyriforme. There were also assorted conecaps, moss bells, fibrecaps, cavaliers, bonnets and knights. Nearly all of these are mycorrhizal associates of downy birch, with a few from grass and leaf litter. The only member of this group associated with pine was a stinking puffball Lycoperdon nigrescens.
Jelly fungi (Auriculariales) were represented by just the pine jelly Exidia saccharina, in black patches on branches. Boletes and their relatives (Boletales) included three species of Leccinumassociated with downy birch, L. cyanobasileucum, L. melaenum and three huge examples of the common brown birch bolete L. scabrum. The three other species from this group are all associated with either birch (which Bruce described as an ‘honorary conifer’) or pine, the brown rollrim Paxillus involutus, cow bolete Suillus bovinusand slippery jack S. luteus.
An elegant group of grey chanterelles Craterellus cinereus represented their group (Cantharellales), and the ubiquitous birch bracket or razor strop fungus Fomitopsis betulinawas the only example found of the bracket fungi (Polyporales).
The very colourful milkcaps, brittlegills and their relatives (Russulales) were represented by eight species of milkcap Lactariusspp., mostly associated with birch, but two with pine, saffron milkcap L. deliciosus and rufous milkcap L. rufus. There were, perhaps unusually, only two brittlegills, the birch brittlegill Russula betularum and bloody brittlegill R. sanguinaria, the latter associated with pine.
Rusts and smuts, one of Bruce’s special interests, were represented by three rusts, on willow, downy birch and common dog-violet, and a smut Urocystis ranunculi on creeping buttercup.
All of the above-mentioned fungi are from the major subdivision of the fungal kingdom known as the Basidiomycota (with some 32,000+ described species). Members of the other major subdivision, the Ascomycota (with some 65,000+ described species), are sometimes referred to as cup and flask fungi. They are another of Bruce’s special interests, often tiny, and much less well known in Highland Scotland. They were represented by a total of eleven species of stem and leaf blotches, leaf spots, a powdery mildew Erysiphe spp., a pine needle parasite Lophodermium seditiosum, the bracken map Rhopographus filicinus and, largest by far, one specimen of the elastic saddle Helvella elastica .
A few other observations were made during our Little Assynt foray. The furry caterpillars of fox and ruby tiger moths were spotted in low-growing vegetation and a distinctively-marked green caterpillar of the iron prominent moth was found on a willow. Common hawker dragonflies were flying in the sunshine and common darters were basking on the path beyond the pine plantation.
Bruce enlivened his narrative about the fungi found with a series of anecdotes, relating amongst other things to the hallucinogenic properties of some species and their relevance to the content of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The foray was very informative, both for beginners and those with some prior knowledge of fungi, and at times highly entertaining. Thanks are due to David Haines for his splendid set of photographs. These and the list provided by Bruce will be a useful contribution to the Field Club’s Little Assynt Wildlife Project.
Ian M. Evans
|FUNGI RECORDED AT LITTLE ASSYNT, NC1525 16.9.18|
|Agaricales – mushrooms and their relatives|
|Amanita muscaria||Fly Agaric||with birch|
|Conocybe juniana||a conecap||in grass|
|Cortinarius alboviolaceus||a webcap||with birch||Photo 3.|
|Cortinarius anomalus||a webcap||with birch|
|Cortinarius caninus||Dog Webcap||with birch|
|Cortinarius cumatilis||a webcap||with birch||rare|
|Cortinarius decipiens||Sepia Webcap||with birch|
|Cortinarius hemitrichus||Frosted Webcap||with birch||Photo 4.|
|Cortinarius pholideus||a webcap||with birch||Uncommon||Photo 5.|
|Entoloma sinuatum||Livid Pinkgill||under birch||very toxic|
|Galerina mniophila||a moss bell||in moss|
|Hebeloma birrus||a poisonpie||with birch|
|Hebeloma leucosarx||Long-stemmed Poisonpie||with birch|
|Hebeloma mesophaeum||Veiled Poisionpie||with birch|
|Hebeloma pseudofragilipes||a poisonpie||with birch||uncommon|
|Hygrocybe conica||Blackening Waxcap||in grass||Photo 6.|
|Inocybe nitidiuscula||a fibrecap||with birch|
|Laccaria laccata||Deceiver||with trees|
|Lacrymaria pyrotricha||Redcapped Weeping Widow||under birch||rare|
|Lycoperdon nigrescens||Stinking Puffball||under pine||Photos 7. 8.|
|Lycoperdon pyriforme||Stump Puffball||on buried roots||Photo 9.|
|Melaleuca polioleuca||Common Cavalier||under trees|
|Mycena sanguinolenta||Bleeding Bonnet||in leaf litter|
|Mycena vitilis||Snapping Bonnet||in leaf litter|
|Tricholoma fulvum||Birch Knight||with birch||Photo 10.|
|Tricholoma stiparophyllum||a white knight||with birch|
|Auriculariales – jelly fungi|
|Exidia saccharina||Pine jelly||on pine branches||uncommon|
|Boletales – boletes and their relatives|
|Leccinum cyanobasileucum||a birch bolete||with birch|
|Leccinum melaenum||Dark Birch Bolete||with birch|
|Leccinum scabrum||Brown Birch Bolete||with birch||Photo 11.|
|Paxillus involutus||Brown Rollrim||with birch and pine|
|Suillus bovinus||Cow Bolete||with pine||Photos 12. 13.|
|Suillus luteus||Slippery Jack||with pine|
|Cantharellales – chanterelles and their relatives|
|Craterellus cinereus||Grey Chanterelle||with birch||Uncommon||Photo 14.|
|Polyporales – brackets and their relatives|
|Fomitopsis betulina||Birch Bracket||parasitic on birch||was Piptoporus|
|Russulales – milkcaps, brittlegills and their relatives|
|Lactarius aurantiacus||Orange Milkcap||with birch|
|Lactarius deliciosus||Saffron Milkcap||with pine|
|Lactarius pubescens||Hairy Milkcap||with birch|
|Lactarius rufus||Rufous Milkcap||with pine|
|Lactarius subdulcis||Mild Milkcap||with birch|
|Lactarius tabidus||Birch Milkcap||with birch|
|Lactarius turpis||Ugly Milkcap||with birch|
|Lactarius vietus||Grey Milkcap||with birch|
|Russula betularum||Birch Brittlegill||with birch|
|Russula sanguinaria||Bloody Brittlegill||with pine||Photo 15.|
|Note: in the above list ‘with’ indicates a mycorrhizal relationship|
|Rusts and smuts|
|Melampsora capraearum||Sallow Rust||on grey sallow|
|Melampsoridium betulinum||Birch Rust||on birch|
|Puccinia violae||Violet Rust||on wood violet|
|Urocystis ranunculi||Buttercup Smut||on creeping buttercup|
|Ascomycetes – cup and flask fungi|
|Diaporthopsis pantherina||stem blotch||on bracken|
|Erysiphe aquilegiae var. ranunculi||powdery mildew||on creeping buttercup|
|Erysiphe knautiae||powdery mildew||on devil’sbit scabious|
|Fusidium griseum||leaf blotch||on birch|
|Helvella elastica||a helvel||under birch||Photo 16.|
|Lophodermium seditiosum||needle parasite||on pine|
|Phacellium rufibasis||leaf blotch||on bog myrtle|
|Ramularia pratensis||leaf spot||on sorrel|
|Ramularia succisae||leaf spot||on devil’sbit scabious|
|Rhopographus filicinus||Bracken Map||on bracken|
|Septoria urticae||leaf spot||on nettle|
This item forms part of the Little Assynt Wildlife Project